Chapter 1: Matter and Change



Section 1:

  • Chemistry- is the study of composition, structure, and properties of matter, the process matter undergoes, and the energy changes that accompany these processes

Branches of Chemistry
Organic chemistry
study of most carbon containing compounds
Inorganic chemistry
study of non-organic substances many of which have organic fragments bonded to metals
Physical chemistry
the study of the properties and changes of matter and the relation to energy
Analytical chemistry
the identification of the components and the composition of the materials
Biochemistry
the study of substances and processes occurring in living things
Theoretical Chemistry
the use of mathematics and computers to understand the principles behind observed chemical behavior and to design and predict the properties of new chemical compounds
Section 2:Matter- anything that has mass and takes up space

If you look around, you might find a ball of Play-Doh. The first think that you might notice about this ball of Play-Doh is that it takes up space. This is called volume, which is the amount of three-dimensional space an object occupies. All matter has volume and thus takes up space. The Play-Doh also has something called mass, which is a measure of the amount of matter present.

Building Blocks of Matter


Atom
smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical identity of that element
Element
a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler stable substances and is made of one type of atom
Compound
a substance that can be broken down into simpler stable substances. Each compound is made from the atoms of two or more elements that are chemically bonded
Properties of Matter
Extensive properties
properties that depend on the amount of matter present
Ex. Volume, Mass, and Amount of Energy
Intensive properties
properties that do not depend on the amount of matter present
Ex. Melting Point, Boiling Point, Density, and Conductivity
Physical property
a characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance
Ex. Color, Volume, Mass, Luster, Melting Point
Chemical property
relates to a substance’s ability to undergo changes that transform it into different substances
Ex. Flammability, Electronegativity, Reactivity

Physical and Chemical ChangesThere are two different types of changes that matter can experience. The first of these is a physical change. A physical change is a change in a substance that does not involve a change in the identity of the substance. Examples of physical changes are melting, cutting, boiling, freezing, and grinding a material. The other type of change is a chemical change. A chemical change is a change in which one or more substances are converted into different substances. The substances that react in a chemical change are called the reactants. The substances formed by the chemical change are called the products. If you were to burn charcoal (carbon), carbon and oxygen are the reactants, and carbon dioxide is the product.

States of Matter

A change of state is a physical change of a substance from one state to another.
Solid
has definite volume and definite shape
Liquid
has definite volume but indefinite shape
Gas
has indefinite volume and indefinite shape
Plasma
is a high temperature physical state of matter in which atoms lose most of their electrons
external image states.gif
Classification of Matter
Mixture- a blend of two or more kinds of matter, each of which retains its own identity and properties.
Homogeneous Mixture
mixtures which are uniform in composition
Solution
Another name for homogeneous mixtures
Heterogeneous Mixture
Mixtures which are not uniform throughout
Pure Substance
a substance that has a fixed composition and differs from a mixture in the following ways: 1. every sample of a given pure substance has exactly the same characteristic properties 2. every sample of a given pure substance has exactly the same composition

matter_chart.jpg


Section 3:

Periodic Table
The periodic table is grouped into rows and columns. The vertical columns on the table are called groups or families. Each group has elements that contain similar chemical properties. The horizontal rows on the table are called periods. The two sets of elements located below the main body of the periodic table are called the lanthanide series and actinide series.

The elements of the periodic table are either metals, nonmetals, or metalloids.

Metals are elements that are good electrical conductors and good heat conductors. Most are solid at room temperature. Most are also malleable, or can be hammered or rolled into thin sheets. Most also tend to be ductile, which means they can be drawn into a thin wire.

Nonmentals are elements that are poor conductors of both heat and electricity. Many of them are gases at room temperature. The solid nonmentals, which include carbon, phosphorus. selenium, sulfur, and iodine, tend to be brittle instead of malleable and ductileThere are fewer nonmetals than metals.


Metalloids are elements that have some characteristics of metals and some characteristics of nonmetals. All metalloids are solids at room temperature. They tend to be less malleable than metals, but not as brittle as nonmetals. They tend to be semiconductors of electricity, which means that their ability to conduct electricity is inbetween that of metals and nonmetals.


Noble Gases are the gases which are located in Group 18. They are generally unreactive, which makes them very different from the other families of elements. They are all gases at room temperature. Neon, argon, krypton, and xenon are used in lighting, and helium is used for balloons.






A Brief Review of the Sections:

Section 1: Chemistry is a Physical Science


Chemistry is a link to biological and physical sciences because all matter is made up of chemical structures.

Basic research is carried out to increase knowledge.

Applied research is used to find a solution to a problem.

Technology development is used to improve quality of life.



Section 2: Matter and It’s Properties


Characteristic properties separate one substance from another.

Solids, Liquids, Gases, and Plasma are the four states of matter.

Energy is always present in any change in matter, either physical or chemical.




Section 3: Elements


Elements in the Periodic table are organized by similar characteristics.

The periodic has two sections, Metals, and Non-metals. The Metals are towards the left and Non-metals near the right.

Metals are mostly solids at room temp. and Non-metals are usually gases at room temp.

Noble gases are usually non-reactive.



Chapter One Checkup

Multiple Choice:


1. Which branch of chemistry deals with most carbon containing compounds?
a. inorganic chemistry b. biochemistry c. physical chemistry d. organic chemistry

2. Which type of research would you do to learn more about how copper conducts electricity?
a. basic research b. applied research c. technological research

3. What is the smallest part of an element that still retains the properties of that element?
a. ion b. particle c. atom d. molecule

4. Which is an example of an extensive property?
a. melting point b. mass c. density d. boiling point

5. In which state of matter does atoms lose their electrons?
a. solid b. liquid c. plasma d. gas

6. What kind of mixture is oil and water?
a. homogeneous b. heterogeneous

7. Where are the metals located on the periodic table?
a. right side b. very bottom c. left side d. very top

8. What are the horizontal rows on the periodic table called?
a. groups b. families c. periods

9. What is NOT a characteristic of a metal?
a. good conductor b. high tensile strength c. ductile d. liquids at room temperature

10. What is a characteristic of a noble gas?
a. unreactive b. good conductors c. solids at room temperature



True or False:


1. Chemistry is a physical science.

2. Although Mercury is a metal, it is a liquid at room temperature.

3. An example of a physical change is melting a substance.

4. Pure substances are either homogeneous or heterogeneous.

5. A metalloid has some characteristics of both metals and nonmetals.



Answer Key

Multiple Choice:


1. D
2. A
3. C
4. B
5. C
6. B
7. C
8. C
9. D
10. A


True or False:


1. False
2. True
3. True
4. False
5. True


Created by: Billy Gordon and Chris Vayo
Works Cited for this page:

  • Modern Chemistry. Austin: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2006
  • Maura Bell and Grant Latus