CH8_PIC_1.JPG
a white solute dissolved in a clear liquid
Ch 12- Soulutions


Soulution- a homogeneous mixture where all components are in a single phase.
-Gases(ex.atmosphere=CO2, N2, O2)
-Liquids(ex.saltwater) Aquesous----> dissolved in water
-Soloids(ex.14 karot gold, brass) ----> Alloy

Particle Size <1nanometer they will not seperate on their own
(1nm=1x10^ -9m)

Suspension Colloids
-larger particle size -medium particle size
-great then 1,000 nanometers -will not seperate on their own
-will seperate - Tyndall effect
*scatters light*

PARTS OF SOLUTIONS
Solute--->is the part of the solution being dissolved (changes phase)
Solvent---> the part of the solution that is doing the dissolving (retains phase)
ex. H2O--Aqueaos Solution
Alcohol--Tincture
Mercury--Amalgom
MOLARITY
M = # of moles of solute / L of a solution

MOLALITY
m = # of moles of solute / # of Kg of solvent

SOLUBILITY EQUATIONS
- this shows what happens when ionic compounds dissolve in water.
Ex. NaCL(s) ----> Na(aq) + CL(aq)

Solubility- the maximum amount of th solute that can be dissolved in a given quantitiy of a solvent

Saturated Solution- soultion where the maximum amount of solute has been dissolved

Unsaturated Solution- solution that is not holding it's maximum amount of solute

Supersaturated Solution- a solution holding more solute then is possible

FACTORS AFFECTING SOLUBILITY OF A GAS IN A LIQUID
1) Pressure--> increase pressure, keeps gases dissolved(Henery's Law)
2) Temperature--> increase temperature, makes gases less soluble


SOLUTION MIXING
- this is used when trying to make a diluted solution
- Molarity1 X Volume1 = Molarity2 x Volume2**