moz-screenshot.jpg
Chapter 1: Matter and Change
Key terms:
*
Chemistry- is the study of composition, structure, and properties of matter, the process matter undergoes, and the energy changes that accompany these processes

*
Organic chemistry- study of most carbon containing compounds

*
Inorganic chemistry- study of non-organic substances many of which have organic fragments bonded to metals

*
Physical chemistry- the study of the properties and changes of matter and the relation to energy

*
Analytical chemistry- the identification of the components and the composition of the materials

*
Biochemistry- the study of substances and processes occurring in living things

*
Theoretical chemistry- the use of mathematics and computers to understand the principles behind observed chemical behavior and to design and predict the properties of new chemical compounds

*
Chemical- any substance that has a definite composition

*
Mass- measure of the amount of matter

*
Matter- anything that has a mass and takes up space

*
Atom- smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical identity of that element

*
Element- a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler stable substances and is made of one type of atom

*
Compound- a substance that can be broken down into simpler stable substances. Each compound is made from the atoms of two or more elements that are chemically bonded.

*
Extensive properties- depend on the amount of matter present
Ex.- volume, mass, and amount of energy
*
Intensive properties- do not depend on the amount of matter present
Ex. Melting point, boiling point, density, and conductivity
*
Physical property- a characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance

*
Physical change- a change in a substance that does not involve a change in the identity of a substance
*
Change of state- a physical change of a substance from one state to another

*
Solid- state has definite volume and definite shape

*
Liquid- state has definite volume but indefinite shape

*
Gas- state has neither definite volume or definite shape

*
Plasma- is a high temperature physical state of matter in which atoms lose most of their electrons, particles that make up atoms

*
Chemical property- relates to a substance’s ability to undergo changes that transform it into different substances

*
Chemical change/chemical reaction- a change in which one or more substances are converted into different substances

*
Reactants- substances that react in a chemical change

*
Products- substances formed by chemical change

*
Mixture- is a blend of two or more kinds of matter, each of which retains its own identity and properties

*
Homogeneous- h